. Choose one of the following questions and respond to the question in a well-developed essay (4-5 well-developed paragraphs). (23 points).

Dear writer, please find all readings attached.
Directions: The open-book exam is based on topics addressed in course readings and class discussions. It consists of three parts (Part A, Part B and Part C). Be sure to complete all parts. Your responses will be evaluated based on content (48 points) and use of academic writing conventions (2 points). If you quote from course readings in your responses to the exam questions, be sure to provide the source and page number for the quotation. Use of sources in addition to course readings is not required.
Part A. Define five (5) of the following terms in your own words. For each term, provide an example to clarify your definition (15 points). If you define all terms, only the first five will count.
Direct tests (3 points)
Norm-referenced tests (3 points)
Integrative tests (3 points)
Reliability coefficient (3 points)
Backwash (3 points)
Cloze tests (3 points)
Part B. Answer this question in one to two paragraphs (10 points).
Define validity. Then, discuss how two types of evidence for validity may be established for achievement tests.
Part C. Choose one of the following questions and respond to the question in a well-developed essay (4-5 well-developed paragraphs). (23 points).
Question 1
You teach an intermediate-level ESL writing class at an English Language Institute. The intermediate-level ESL writing course is designed to improve students’ skills in writing comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and argumentative essays. Students in your class come from diverse language and cultural backgrounds.
Note: If needed, you may add more specific information about the context of the course. 2
To answer this question:
• Create a writing prompt for the argumentative writing assignment and explain how your prompt addresses the content, language, task, and rhetorical variables discussed in Reid and Kroll’s guidelines for designing effective writing prompts (9 points).
• Explain how you plan to score the completed essays (i.e., whether you plan to use holistic scoring, analytical scoring or another scoring method) and justify your choice of the scoring method (7 points). There is no need to create a scoring rubric.
• Discuss the steps you plan to take to enhance the reliability of scoring (7 points).
Question 2
This question consists of three parts. Be sure to answer all parts.
• Drawing on specific interviewer strategies reported in Brown’s article “Interviewer variation and the co-construction of speaking proficiency,” explain how interviewers can influence the speaking proficiency of test candidates (9 points).
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the oral proficiency interview as a method for testing speaking (7 points).
• Discuss the steps which may be taken to enhance the reliability of oral proficiency interviews (7 points).

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