What is its relationship to justice, social change, public policy, ethics, human rights, and/or human progress?
The paper must identify one applied problem linked to criminology, criminal justice, or justice studies. Students must engage in a dialogue between the identification of their criminology, criminal justice, justice studies problem and the overall learning acquired throughout the semester. The research paper must address the following matters in the for sections listed below (uses these sections as subheadings in your final paper):
Introduction: Summarily explain the criminological, criminal justice, or social justice problem you intend to examine. Why is the topic relevant? What is its relationship to justice, social change, public policy, ethics, human rights, and/or human progress?(This section should be about 1-2 pages in length)
Description: What are the dimensions of or facets to the problem you have specified? Explore the essential contours that constitute the problem itself. Review the theoretical explanations/causes of the selected problem. What has the relevant social science literature/research found regarding your topic? The “Description” section of your paper is like a mini literature review. Be specific! Use Examples! Cite your sources (APA style)! You need a minimum of TEN scholarly sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journals, scholarly books, or government/non-profit websites). (This section should be about 4-5 pages in length)
Explanation: Summarize and reflect on what you have unearthed about your topic throughout the research you have conducted in this course. In your explanation, comment on the link between theory and practice as developed throughout the course and how it relates to your topic. In other words, integrate your crime & justice related problem with your assessment of the accumulated learning experienced throughout the course. What key concepts, theories, and themes apply to your topic and how? (This section should be about 4-5 pages in length)
Implications: Discuss the effectiveness and efficiency of past and present policies or practices associated with the problem you are investigating. How might we improve our societal response to this problem? What are the recommended future policies for addressing and/or alleviating the problem? How might future research and theory development progress and evolve on this research topic? Be specific! Use examples! (About 4-5 pages in length)
References: Provide a list of all scholarly sources used in APA format
Below is the work that I have done towards this project, There are 13 or 14 Citations below, with a description of what I intended to do with the source. You may use this to write your paper, you may choose a different topic, (after clearing it through me). if you feel better suited for another topic. Please do not hesitate to reach out to me for questions. Thank you and good luck.
Ideas: looking at diminishing returns in reintegration in connection to long prison terms, run in parallel with associated costs and public burdens, with a backdrop of the top successful rehabilitation/integration programs both stateside and abroad?
Aizer, A., & Doyle, J. J. (2015). Juvenile Incarceration, Human Capital, and Future Crime: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Judges *. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130(2), 759–803. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjv003
-This is being used to show that incarceration, regardless of recidivism, is harmful to the criminal and will in turn negatively impact the society they reintegrate into. Bhuller, M., Dahl, G. B., Løken, K. V., & Mogstad, M. (2016, September 1). Incarceration, Recidivism and Employment. National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w22648
-This paper calls into question prisons’ effect on recidivism and shows proof that it lowers the crime. My intent is to argue that the negative effect on employment is in itself an indicator of future criminal behavior. Carson, E., & Statistician, B. (2015). Prisoners in 2014. https://bjs.ojp.gov/content/pub/pdf/p14.pdf
I’m using this source to show the populations of prisons in America broken down by federal and state. This is also broken down by sex, and race.
Denny, M. (2016). Norway’s Prison System: Investigating Recidivism and Norway’s Prison System: Investigating Recidivism and Reintegration Reintegration. Journal of Student Research, 10(10). https://digitalcommons.coastal.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1032&context=bridges#:~:text=Norway%20has%20one%20of%20the%20lost%20 recidivism%20rates%20in%20the
-Showing the recidivism rate of an extremely successful program in another country, This shows a breakdown of systems of care conducted by the prison and state to ensure low recidivism and treat their prisoners humanely.
Department of Justice. (2016, November 29). Prison Reform: Reducing Recidivism by Strengthening the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Www.justice.gov. https://www.justice.gov/archives/prison-reform#_ftn1
-This is an archive of the department of justice’s aims and visions. This speaks to a goal that I intend to use to argue and talk about solutions that are both cost effective and decrease recidivism. This speaks on identifying and managing criminogenic needs. Increasing education and pilot programs to give grants for further education to the imprisoned. Henrichson, C., & Delaney, R. (2012). CENTER ON SENTENCING AND CORRECTIONS.https://static.prisonpolicy.org/scans/vera/the-price-of-prisons.pdf
-This breaks down state by state expenditure on correctional costs. This shows where the money is going both in and out of the correctional system to be juxtaposed to total cost in more successful rehabilitation programs. Holzer, H. J., Whitmore Schanzenbach, D., Duncan, G. J., & Ludwig, J. (2008). The economic costs of childhood poverty in the United States. Journal of Children and Poverty, 14(1), 41–61. https://doi.org/10.1080/10796120701871280
-This is an analysis of costs associated with child poverty on the GDP of the country. It finds approximately one percent reduction in productivity and economic output, the raised costs of crime by similar, and increased costs associated with healthcare. This is linked with positive correlation to childhood poverty and having an adult in prison. Hyland, Ph.D., BJS Statistician, S. (2019, October). Justice Expenditure And Employment Extracts, 2016 – Preliminary. Bureau of Justice Statistics. https://bjs.ojp.gov/library/publications/justice-expenditure-and-employment-extracts-2016-preliminary
-This is a collection and breakdown of all 2016 expenditure and employment extracts of the us doj.
Kellogg, C. (2015). There Goes the Neighborhood: Exposing the Relationship Between Gentrification and Incarceration. Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.31979/themis.2015.0310
-This paper argues a deliberate attempt the government makes to incarcerate persons to effect market values and help fund government projects. I instead argue that it is a natural effect of increased job requirements and costs of living. That prisons compound on this by pulling the person away from the job market making them less employable plus a stacking effect from having not held a job, increased education, and the reporting of incarceration history.
Levitt, S. D. (2004). Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1), 163–190. https://doi.org/10.1257/089533004773563485
-This paper shows a series of changes that lead to steep decrease in crime and several that, while reported, have little evidence of their efficacy in lowering crime. Even arguments that the imprisoned individual isn’t committing crime doesn’t speak of enough of a downturn that we see. Finding that incarceration primarily as a buffer to protect society doesn’t speak enough for the aims of the justice system as spoken of above
Monnat, S. M., Raffalovich, L. E., & Tsao, H. (2012). Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988–2009. Population Review, 51(1), 85–115. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500634/
-This paper shows a rise in US income inequality. This will be used to show impact on disadvantaged communities which will tie in with my perpetual argument that it is a compounding effect that is in part deliberate only to further tertiary actions. Peterson, J., & Lee, A. (2017, December 6). Improving In-Prison Rehabilitation Programs. Lao.ca.gov. https://lao.ca.gov/Publications/Report/3720#Overview_of_State.2019s_In.2011Prison_Rehabilitation_Programs
I’m using this to show the breakdown of a rather successful rehabilitation program in America, the costs, and success rate. Smith, P., M A Claire Goggin, & M A Paul Gendreau. (2002). The Effects of Prison Sentences and Intermediate Sanctions on Recidivism: General Effects and Individual Differences 2002-01. https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/ffcts-prsn-sntncs/ffcts-prsn-sntncs-eng.pdf