Your response posts should be a minimum of 75 words. You do not have to answer t

Your response posts should be a minimum of 75 words. You do not have to answer the question.
Topic 4 DQ 1
This is the question.
Compare independent variables, dependent variables, and extraneous variables. Describe two ways that researchers attempt to control extraneous variables. Support your answer with peer-reviewed articles.
These are the posts
1. The independent variable is meant to alter the dependent variable. The dependent variable is what the research is being done for. The extraneous variable is an unrelated factor that affects the dependent and independent variables. Demand characteristics are factors in society that could affect an individual’s actions and the study. Participant variables are demographics about an individual that could change the results of a study.
2. Research studies may show or may not establish a cause-and-effect relationship, like an independent and dependent variable. A dependent variable depends on the independent variable. Flannely (2017) states, “It is the dependent variable that the Researcher is most interested in understanding and predicting.” The independent variable may be a drug or treatment. It is the independent variable the Researcher will use to manipulate the dependent variable. For example, Researcher may conduct a study to see whether exercise (independent variable) affects body weight (dependent variable). An Extraneous variable can be age, income, education, and health status (Flannely,2017). The Researcher can alter the study’s design if an extraneous variable changes the experiment. For example, the extraneous variable may be unbeknown at the beginning of the study. The Researcher can address this variable by incorporating it in the independent variable or putting the participants into grouping, like 20=30 years old and 40-50 years old, to address the extraneous variable, which can alter the study.
3. Independent variables is a variable whose variation does not depend on another. An experimental where the independent variables is the variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher. The independent variable is the cause, the value of an independent of other variables in a study. Independent variables are what we expected will influence the dependent variables Dependent variable is a variable in which the value depends on that of another. A dependent variable is what happens from as result of the independent variables. The dependent variable depends on other factors, that the researcher controls. A extraneous variables is any variable that the researcher Is not investigating that can affect the outcomes of a research study. The extraneous variables if left uncontrolled these kinds of variables can lead to inaccurate conclusions about the relationship between dependent variables and independent variables. The variables are also known as a confounding or external variables, they refer to something that emerges unexpectedly during an experiment which may affect the results of the experiment. Anything that is not the independent variable that has the potential to affect the results of the experiment. It usually is a natural characteristic of the participant (Rastogi, n.d.). The two methods that research attempt to control extraneous variables the first way that they control variables are Randomization. Randomization is the approach where treatments are randomly assigned to the experimental group. Matching is another important technique to match the different groups of confounding variables (Using experimental controlTo reduce extraneous Variable, n.d.).
4. When it comes to research, independent variables are variables whose change is not hinged on another variable. Rather, independent variables usually inspire the changes in other variables. Dependent variables, on the other hand, are variables whose value is hinged on the value of other variables and often, it is hinged on the outcome of the independent variable. Last but not least is the extraneous variable (Heinze et al., 2018). This is also known as the confounding variables and these are variables that are not being investigated and yet are likely to affect or influence the dependent variable of the study.
One way to control extraneous variables is through the use of a control group in the study. Here, the intervention group will receive the intervention, on the other hand, the control group does not receive the intervention (Cheng et al., 2022). The researchers will therefore assess the differences in outcomes between the control and intervention groups to ascertain the effect of the intervention.
Topic 4 DQ 2
This is the question
Describe the seven “levels of evidence” and provide an example of the type of practice change that could result from each.
These are the posts
5. Levels of Evidence are a system used to rank medical studies based on the quality and reliability of their design. In most cases, they have always been depicted in a pyramid model that exemplifies available evidence’s quantity and quality. In the pyramid, the higher the position, the stronger the available evidence. Additionally, data and research that have previously been developed in the lower levels are drawn on each level. Also, the pyramid separates the levels of evidence into two or three sections, with the top consisting of filtered proof and the section below consisting of primary evidence (Rutkowski, 2022). The entire practice medical practice simply revolves around this evidence, its different types, as well as its validity. It is, therefore, the product or result of scientific research that enables decision-making. The evidence pyramid consists of:
· Level I: Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis – Evidence from a meta-analysis or systematic of all RCTs, or evidence-based clinical practice guidelines based on the RCT’s systematic reviews, or more RTCs of good quality with similar results.
· Level II: Randomized Controlled Trial – This is evidence that is received from at least one well-designed RCT, such as the large multi-site RCT.
· Level III: Non-Randomized Controlled Trial – This is evidence received from well-designed controlled trials without randomization.
· Level IV: Case-Control or Cohort Study – This is evidence from cohort studies or well-designed case-control.
· Level V: Systematic Review of Qualitative or Descriptive Study – This is evidenced by qualitative and descriptive studies’ systematic reviews.
· Level VI: Qualitative or Descriptive Study – This is evidence from just a single qualitative or descriptive study.
· Level VII: Expert Opinion or Consensus – This is evidenced by the authorities’ opinions or the reports of expert committees.
These evidence levels are divided into primary information (filtered) and secondary information (unfiltered). While primary information contains original data or results from scientific research, secondary always contains filtered information, including interpretation, synthesis, analysis commentary, and evaluation (Vaddepally et al., 2020). Secondary information is, therefore, considered the highest quality evidence.
6. At the bottom of the levels of evidence pyramid is the editorial or opinion. A nurse could change the way they treat their own patients based on personal observations and experiences. This is the weakest or lowest level of evidence (Evidenced based nursing.2023)..
The 6th level is a descriptive or qualitative study.
The 5th level is a systematic review of a qualitative study. This compares results of multiple studies in order to identify common themes. Conclusions identified in multiple studies may be implemented into practice since multiple pieces of evidence identify their effectiveness (Evidenced based nursing.2023)..
The 4th level is the non experiment cohort or case control study. Individuals are randomly assigned to the experimental or control group to test the effectiveness of an intervention.This is an in depth research study of an individual unit.The subject may or may not have have the disease or condition being studied (Ingham-Bloomfield.R.).
Level 3is the non randomized or quasi experimental study. This involves at least one test and one control group, as well as a bias free way of assigning patients to each group(Evidence based nursing.2023)..
Level 2 is the randomized control trial. Individuals are randomly assigned to an experimental or control group to measure the effectiveness of an intervention. They provide the best evidence an multiple groups participate with different interventions. AT the conclusion of the trial, all the interventions are measured, and compared against one another (Ingham-Bloomfield.R.).
The 1st level Systematic review meta analysis . This is the strongest level of evidence. This is a compiled review of all the studies on a specific topic with predetermined criteria. There is an aggressive review of all available evidence on a specific healthcare topic (Ingham-Bloomfield.R.).

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